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What are the contact boundary disturbances?

Following are the contact boundary disturbances:

  • Confluence

Confluence refers to the reduction in size, extent, or importance of the ‘self’, along with diminished contact boundaries of the client.

  • Introjection

According to the psychoanalytic theory, introjection is a defense mechanism used to resolve an emotional conflict by placing a mental representation of an object inside the mind. If this leads to increased independence, this mechanism is said to be highly adaptive.

  • Projection

Projection is also a defense mechanism where one attributes one’s own undesirable thoughts/ impulses/ ideas on to another person as a way of conflict resolution.

  • Retroflection

Retroflection is a way of doing to oneself what one would like for others to do to him/her. For e.g., boasting about something that one wants to be praised for.

  • Deflection

Deflection is a situation where an individual either blocks an emotional trigger or turns themselves away from the situation to prevent causing emotional distress.

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